Endocrinology Advisor checked in with Jamie Zeitzer, PhD, associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University and sleep specialist at the Stanford Sleep Medicine Center.

Dr Zeitzer: Overproduction of melatonin is most typically associated with pineal teratomas. Loss of or reduced production of melatonin is often secondary to neurologically complete tetraplegia (complete loss of melatonin), use of beta-blockers (partial loss), or nonspecific poor health — especially involving liver function. Bilateral oculosympathoparesis (Horner syndrome) is predictive of a loss of melatonin. There are, however, no specific clinical disorders that are associated with over- or underproduction of melatonin.