Narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy), is a neurological sleep disorder to which a specific inherited tissue type (HLA-DQB1*0602) predisposes people.

The disease mechanism of narcolepsy type 1 was investigated in a collaborative study carried out by PhD student Arja Vuorela and university researcher Tobias Freitag, MD, working in the research groups of professors Outi Vaarala and Seppo Meri. The study analyzed the cell-mediated immune response targeting three different proteins of influenza A (H1N1) virus included in the Pandemrix vaccine, in Finnish children and adolescents who developed narcolepsy after Pandemrix swine flu vaccination in 2009-2010.

The study was published in the journal Nature Communications.

Immune Cells Activated by Body’s Own Proteins

The researchers found that immune cells in the blood of narcolepsy patients mounted stronger responses against two peptides originating from swine flu virus neuraminidase or nucleoprotein, compared to the cells of vaccinated control subjects.

By investigating similarities between the two identified viral peptides and human proteins, the researchers identified similar sequences in two self proteins present in the human brain. This led them to study immune responses in narcolepsy patients also to these self proteins.

What they found demonstrated that patient lymphocytes recognized a fragment derived from the human protein-O-mannosyl-transferase 1 enzyme (POMT1). This POMT1 peptide mimics the peptide from influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase, that is a target of the immune response generated by Pandemrix vaccine.

“Interestingly, immune cells in patient blood produced the same mediators of inflammation as a response to the peptides of both viral neuraminidase or human POMT1 enzymes. Both peptides also brought about the development and selection of identical or similar T lymphocyte clones,” says Freitag in a release.

Onset of Autoimmune Diseases Likely Explained by Cross-Reactivity

Prior research has uncovered that “molecular mimicry“, the similarity between proteins produced by pathogens or expressed in human tissues, may trigger the development of autoimmune diseases in people genetically at risk.

According to the latest study, lymphocytes that recognize the virus cross-react with human brain tissue and, consequently, contribute to the development of narcolepsy type 1. Autoantibodies recognizing the human POMT1 enzyme were also found at higher levels in individuals vaccinated with Pandemrix.

“The results indicate that the Pandemrix vaccine triggered an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed people. All of the individuals who developed narcolepsy had the same HLA-DQB1*0602 tissue type, which predisposes people to the disease. Most likely, the effective adjuvant included in the vaccine also contributed to the autoimmune response,” says Seppo Meri, professor of immunology from the University of Helsinki, in a release.

The findings can boost further research aimed at the improvement of diagnostics and treatments for narcolepsy type 1, including therapeutic strategies modifying or redirecting the immune system.

“The findings of this study serve as a reminder that no medical procedure, including vaccination, is entirely without risk. As with all clinical decision making, vaccination recommendations need to consider both benefits and possible adverse effects. When new vaccines are introduced, especially those based on novel adjuvants or vaccine technologies, recommendations need to be tailored to different age and risk groups” Freitag says.

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