Detecting drowsiness following a vehicle crash is difficult, which makes drowsy driving an underreported traffic safety issue. New research from the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety provides an unprecedented analysis of in-vehicle dashcam video from more than 700 crashes—and the study found the percentage of crashes involving drowsiness to be nearly 8 times higher than federal estimates indicate.
“Drowsy driving is a bigger traffic safety issue than federal estimates show,” says David Yang, PhD, executive director for the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, in a release. “Drivers who don’t get enough sleep are putting everyone on the road at risk. By conducting an in-depth analysis using video of everyday drivers, we can now better assess if a driver was fatigued in the moments leading up to a crash.”
In the study, researchers examined video of drivers’ faces in the 3 minutes leading up to a crash. Using a scientific measure linking the percentage of time a person’s eyes are closed to their level of drowsiness, the researchers determined that 9.5% of all crashes and 10.8% of crashes resulting in significant property damage involved drowsiness. Federal estimates indicate drowsiness is a factor in only 1% to 2% of crashes.
In a recent related AAA Foundation survey, nearly all drivers (96%) say they view drowsy driving as a serious threat to their safety and a completely unacceptable behavior. But 29% admitted to driving when they were so tired they had a hard time keeping their eyes open at some point in the past month.
“As many Americans struggle to balance their busy schedules, missing a few hours of sleep each day can often seem harmless,” says Jake Nelson, director of Traffic Safety Advocacy and Research for AAA. “But missing just 2 to 3 hours of sleep can more than quadruple your risk for a crash, which is the equivalent of driving drunk.”
Knowing the warning signs of drowsiness can help drivers avoid dozing off behind the wheel. The most common symptoms include:
- Having trouble keeping your eyes open
- Drifting from your lane
- Not remembering the last few miles driven
Drivers however should not rely on their bodies to provide warning signs for drowsiness and should instead prioritize getting at least 7 hours of sleep before hitting the road.
“Don’t be fooled, the only antidote for drowsiness is sleep,” says William Van Tassel, manager of Driver Training for AAA. “Short term tactics like drinking coffee, singing, rolling down the window will not work. Your body’s need for sleep will eventually override your brain’s attempts to stay awake.”
AAA recommends that drivers:
- Travel at times of the day when they are normally awake
- Avoid heavy foods
- Avoid medications that cause drowsiness or other impairment
For longer trips, drivers should:
- Schedule a break every two hours or every 100 miles
- Travel with an alert passenger and take turns driving
- Do not underestimate the power of a quick nap. Pulling into a rest stop and taking a quick catnap—at least 20 minutes and no more than 30 minutes of sleep—can help to keep you alert on the road.
To help drivers determine if their medications may cause drowsiness, AAA and the AAA Foundation developed Roadwise Rx, a free and confidential online tool that generates personalized feedback about how the interactions between prescription, over-the-counter medicines, and herbal supplements can affect safety behind the wheel.
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety’s report, Prevalence of Drowsy Driving Crashes: Estimates from a Large-Scale Naturalistic Driving Study, is based on the analysis of in-vehicle video footage of crashes that occurred during the Second Strategic Highway Research Program’s Naturalistic Driving Study (SHRP 2 NDS). The federally funded study recruited 3,593 drivers from six study sites across the United States. The drivers were monitored continually using in-vehicle video and other data collection equipment while driving their personal vehicles for a period of several months.